Monday, 12 May 2014

PET Result Unit 11 - The natural world

Zero conditional

Este condicional refiere a una situación que es siempre verdadera (verdades universales): If you freeze water, it turns into ice.
If clause                                  Main clause
              If + Present tense                                Present tense
               If you freeze water                                  it turns into ice.

  • If you freeze water, it turns into ice.
    Si congelas el agua, se convierte en hielo.
  • If I work too much, I get tired.
    Si trabajo demasiado, me canso.
  • If I have time, I usually go to the movies.
    Si tengo tiempo, generalmente voy al cine.
  • If she eats hamburgers, she gets an allergy.
    Si ella come hamburguesas, le da alergia.
  • If they come here, they always bring a present.
    Si ellos vienen aquí, siempre traen un regalo.
  • If she doesn't know the answer, she keeps silent.
    Si ella no sabe la respuesta, se mantiene en silencio.
  • If we don't go out on Saturdays, we rent a video and stay home.
    Si no salimos los sábados, alquilamos un video y nos quedamos en casa.


Exercises: 

http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/type0/exercise1.html

http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/type0/exercise2.html

http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/type0/exercise3.html

First conditional


Se forma con if + simple present + simple future. Se emplea cuando una situación es real o posible: If it rains today, I'll stay at home. Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.
If clause Main clause
If + Present tense will / can / may / must + verb
If it rains today, I'll stay at home
  • If it rains today, I'll stay at home.
  • Si llueve hoy, me quedaré en casa.
  • If he is busy now, I will come back tomorrow.
    Si está ocupado ahora, regresaré mañana.
  • If I have time, I'll visit my parents this afternoon.
    Si tengo tiempo, visitaré a mis padres esta tarde.
  • If it is warm tomorrow, we'll go to the beach.
    Si está caluroso mañana, iremos a la playa.
  • If it is cold, you must wear warm clothes.
    Si está frío, debes usar ropa abrigada.
  • If he doesn't do his homework, he can not go to the party.
    Si él no hace su tarea, no puede ir a la fiesta.
  • If she doesn't call you, you can call her.
    Si ella no te llama, tú puedes llamarla.
  • If you work hard, you may become a millonaire someday.
    Si trabajas duro, puede que te conviertas en un millonario algún día. 
  • If you spend more than you earn, you'll become a poor man.
    Si gastas más de lo que ganas, te convertirás en un hombre pobre.
  • If they don't invite you, you must not go.
    Si ellos no te invitan, no debes ir.
  • If we don't hurry, we'll miss our bus.
    Si no nos apuramos, perderemos nuestro autobus.
  • If you pay now, you'll get a discount.
    Si pagas ahora, obtendrás un descuento.
  • If they don't want to go out, they can stay home.
    Si no quieren salir, se pueden quedar en casa.
  • If you drink too much, you'll get drunk.
    Si bebes demasiado, te emborracharás.
  • If you feel sick, you must stay in bed.
    Si te sientes enfermo, debes quedarte en cama.
  • If they don't come here, we'll have to go there.
    Si ellos no vienen aquí, tendremos que ir allí.

Exercises: http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/first-conditional-exercise-1.html

Second conditional

Refiere a una situación hipotética y se forma según la estructura if + simple past + simple condicional. Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos traducidos.
If clause Main clause
If + Past Simple would / could / might + verb
If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
  • If I won the lottery, I would travel around the world.
    Si ganara la lotería, viajaría por todo el mundo.
  • If I were in Brazil, I would go to Rio de Janeiro.
    Si yo estuviese en Brasil, iría a Río de Janeiro.
  • If I were you, I would buy that car.
    Si yo fuese tú, compraría ese auto.
  • If he were in my place, he wouldn't do this.
    Si él estuviese en mi lugar, no haría esto.
  • If I had more money, I would buy a nice apartment.
    Si yo tuviese más dinero, me compraría un lindo apartamento.
  • If she had more time, she would travel more often.
    Si ella tuviera más tiempo, viajaría más a menudo.
  • If it were not raining, we could go out.
    Si no estuviese lloviendo, podríamos salir.
  • If we didn't have to work today, we could have a picnic.
    Si no tuviésemos que trabajar hoy, podríamos tener un picnic. 
  • If they won the lottery, they wouldn't work any more.
    Si ellos ganaran la lotería, no trabajarían más.
  • If I saw her, I would ask her out.
    Si la viera, la invitaría a salir.
  • If you went to Brazil, you wouldn't want to come back.
    Si fueras a Brazil, no querrías regresar.
  • If they spoke Spanish, we would understand them.
    Si ellos hablasen español, los entenderíamos.
  • If he didn't live by the river, he couldn't go fishing.
    Si el no viviera cerca del río, no podría ir a pescar.
  • If I didn't want to go, I would tell you.
    Si no quisiera ir, te lo diría.
  • If they worked for that company, they might have better salaries.
    Si ellos trabajaran para esa compañía, podrían tener mejores sueldos.
  • If she wrote a book, it would be a best-seller.
    Si ella escribiese un libro, sería un best-seller. 


Exercises: http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/second-conditional-exercise-1.html
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The conditionals video: http://youtu.be/9ifCM8kJFKI


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