Powerpoint used in class: here
Although, Though and Even Though
Although Tanya was half asleep, she remembered to set the house alarm.Although, though and even though are subordinators used in contrast clauses. They are also called subordinating conjunctions. They all introduce an idea which contrasts with the main clause. For example:
The three subordinators have the same meaning; however, though is more common in informal speech than although. Even though is a stonger form ofalthough and though and is definitely more emphatic than although.
Let's sum it up: If you want to sound informal, choose though instead ofalthough. If you want to sound very emphatic (concession is made more emphatic by using the modifier even), then you can use even thoughinstead of although and though. The three subordinators always come before the subject and verb in a clause. The although/though/even though clause can come before or after the main clause. Another example:
- Though Tanya was half asleep, she remembered to set the house alarm.
- Even though Tanya was half asleep, she remembered to set the house alarm.
- I didn't get the job as an actor although I had all the necessary qualifications.
While and Whereas
I am quiet and shy ( main clause ), while my sister is lively and talkative.We can use while or whereas, which are subordinating conjunctions, to say that something in the subordinate clause contrasts with something in the main clause. The two subordinators are interchangeable and show major contrast. For example:
The two sentences above express a contrast between two ideas. As you can see, the subordinating conjunction while is not only used to express time; it can also express contrast. Thewhile/whereas clause can come before or after the main clause. Another example:
- I am quiet and shy ( main clause ), whereas my sister is lively and talkative.
While/Whereas can be used to show how one person, thing, or place is different from another.
- While/Whereas my father is strong and tall, I am short and weak.
In spite of and Despite
We can use the prepositions in spite of and despiteto talk about contrast. After them you always have to use a noun, a pronoun, or an -ing form of a verb (gerund). For example:
- In spite of the rain (noun), we started to play basketball.
- Despite the rain (noun), we started to play basketball.
- In spite of having (gerund) a migraine headache, I decided to go out on a date.
- Despite having (gerund) a migraine headache, I decided to go out on a date.