In this unit you will cover passive voices and also how to use the prepositions by and with.
English has two voices: active and passive.
The active voice is used when the action is done by the subject: The dog ate my homework.
The passive voice (BE + V+-ed/-en/-t) is used when the action of the sentence is not being done by the subject: My homework was eaten by the dog.
The passive is formed with any time frame of the verb TO BE + the PAST PARTICIPLE.
The passive voice is often used:
- to describe artistic, scientific and literary endeavors:
Research is now being done on a cure for this disease.
- to explain directions and procedures:
- to describe legal and governmental matters and to avoid placing direct blame:
When active sentences have verbs with direct objects (are transitive), they can become passive:
|She is reserving a table.||A table is being reserved.|
|A thief stole my stereo.||My stereo has been stolen by a thief.|
Helpful video on this grammar topic: http://youtu.be/QTQb42w7oig
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By and With:
Both prepositions can be used to show how something is done.
- ‘By’ can be followed by a gerund (-ing form):
- He improved his English by reading novels.
- You can change the look of that room by redecorating it.
- ‘By’ is followed by a noun in combinations refering to the means of transportation or communication:
- by plane/car/bus/subway
- by fax/mail/phone/sea
- ‘With’ is used when tools or parts of the body mentioned:
- I opened the wine with a bottle opener.
- He pushed the door with his foot.
- Note: ‘by hand’ means ‘handmade’, ‘made by a person, not by a machine’:
- She made the pie dough by hand.
- Compared to: The mother touched the girl’s forehead with her hand.
You also need to learn the Alphabet again as you have problems with this, you can practise here: